The author of the article concentrated — mainly on the analysis of the social message — on the first, social encyclical Rerum novarum; encyclical of pope Leo . Encyclical Quadragesimo Anno of Pius XI, 15 May Encyklika Papieza Leona XIII Rerum Novarum (O kwestii socjalnej) [Leon XIII] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The pope declared that the role of the state is to promote social justice through the protection of rights, while the Church must speak out on social issues in order to teach correct social principles and ensure class harmony rather than class conflict.
And thus bodily labor, which Divine Providence decreed to be performed, even after original sin, for the good at once of enycklika body and soul, is being everywhere changed into an instrument of perversion; for dead matter comes forth from the factory ennobled, while men there are corrupted and degraded.
What We have taught about the reconstruction and perfection of social order can surely in no wise be brought to realization without reform of morality, the very record of history clearly shows. But after the Apostolic voice had sounded from the Chair of Peter throughout the world, rulers of nations, more fully alive at last to their duty, devoted their minds and attention to the task of promoting a more comprehensive and fruitful social policy.
Rerum novarum – Wikipedie
It follows from what We have termed the individual and at the same time social character of ownership, that men must consider in this matter not only their own advantage but also the common good. In the second part of this Encyclical where We have presented Our teaching, We have described the remedies for these great evils so explicitly that We consider it sufficient at this point to recall them briefly. To define these duties in detail when necessity requires and the natural law has not done so, is the function of those in charge of the State.
In order to place definite limits on the controversies that have arisen over ownership and its inherent duties there must be first laid down as foundation a principle established by Leo XIII: The whole history of the Church plainly demonstrates that such appearances are unfounded and such charges unjust.
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Yet while it is true that the status of non owning worker is to be carefully distinguished from pauperism, nevertheless the immense multitude of the non-owning workers on the one hand and the enormous riches of certain very wealthy men on the other establish an unanswerable argument that the riches which are so abundantly produced in our age of “industrialism,” as it is called, are not rightly distributed and equitably made available to the various classes of the people.
The just amount of pay, however, must be calculated not on a single basis but on several, as Leo XIII already wisely declared in these words: Thus associations of this kind have molded truly Christian workers who, in combining harmoniously the diligent practice of their occupation with the salutary precepts of religion, protect effectively and resolutely their own temporal interests and rights, keeping a due respect for justice and a genuine desire to work together with other classes of society for the Christian renewal of all social life.
Catholicism portal Book Category. And it is for this reason that wage-earners, since they mostly belong in the mass of the needy, should be specially cared for and protected by the government.
However, in spite of such great agreement, there were some who were not a little disturbed; and so it happened that the teaching of Leo XIII, so noble and lofty and so utterly nvarum to worldly ears, was held suspect by some, even among Catholics, and to certain ones it even gave offense. A new branch of law, wholly unknown to the earlier time, has arisen from this continuous and unwearied labor to protect vigorously the sacred rights of the workers that flow from dncyklika dignity as men and as Christians.
By this law of social justice, one class is forbidden to exclude the other from sharing in the benefits.
Divini redemptoris Mit brennender Sorge Non abbiamo bisogno Quadragesimo anno. At last, admonished “by the consciousness of His Apostolic Office” lest silence on his part might be regarded as failure in his duty he decided, in virtue of the Divine Teaching Office entrusted to him, to address not only the whole Church of Christ but all mankind. HaldaneAuld Hornie, F.
Rerum novarum – Wikipedia
If this is done, that most important division of social life, namely, economic activity, cannot fail likewise to return to right and sound order. Those, therefore, are doing a work that is truly salutary and worthy of all praise who, while preserving harmony among themselves and the integrity of the traditional teaching of the Church, seek to define the inner nature of these duties and their limits whereby either the right of property itself or its use, that is, the exercise of ownership, is circumscribed by the necessities of social living.
With regard to civil authority, Leo XIII, boldly breaking through the confines imposed by Liberalism, fearlessly taught that government must not be thought a mere guardian of law and of good order, but rather must put forth every effort so that “through the entire scheme of laws and institutions.
It will be able to do this the more easily as it rids itself of those burdens which, as We have stated above, are not properly its own. And in the application of natural resources to human use the law of nature, or rather God’s will promulgated by it, demands that right order be observed. Yet lest We neglect anything in a matter of such great importance and that all points treated may be properly connected with the more general principles which We mentioned above and with those which We intend shortly to add, We are compelled to say that to Our certain knowledge there are not wanting some who fear that the State, instead of confining itself as it ought to the furnishing of necessary and adequate assistance, is substituting itself for free activity; that the new syndical and corporative order savors too much of an involved and political system of administration; and that in spite of those more general advantages mentioned above, which are of course fully admitted it rather serves particular political ends than leads to the reconstruction and promotion of encyklkka better social order.
Unless this is kept in mind, one is swept from his course upon the shoals of that moral, juridical, and social modernism which We denounced in the Encyclical issued at the beginning of Our Pontificate.
For, as one is wrecked upon, or comes close to, what is known as “individualism” by denying or minimizing the social and public character of the right of property, so by rejecting or minimizing the private and encyolika character of this same right, one inevitably runs into “collectivism” or at least closely approaches its tenets.
To Our soul’s great joy, We see in these ranks also the massed companies of young workers, who are receiving the counsel encyklkka Divine Grace with willing ears and novwrum with marvelous zeal to gain their comrades for Christ.
Furthermore, the employer must never tax his work people beyond their strength, or employ them in work unsuited to their sex and age. These unions, however, should always profess justice and equity and give Catholic members full freedom to care for their own conscience and obey the laws of the Church. Other Encyclicals of Our Predecessor had in a way prepared the path for that outstanding document and proof of pastoral care: For, whatever some idly say to the contrary, no injury is done to any person when a thing is occupied that is available to all but belongs to no one; however, only that labor which a man performs in his own name and by virtue of which a new form or increase has been given to a thing grants him title to these fruits.
In Gilley, Sheridan; Stanley, Brian. Such just demands and desire have nothing in them now which is inconsistent with Christian truth, and much less are they special to Socialism. If Socialism, like all errors, contains some truth which, moreover, the Supreme Pontiffs have never deniedit is based nevertheless on a theory of human society peculiar to itself and irreconcilable with true Christianity.
Rerym a framework for building social harmony, the pope proposed the idea of rights and duties. But free competition, while justified and certainly useful provided it is kept within certain limits, clearly cannot direct economic life – a truth which the outcome of the application in practice of the tenets of this evil individualistic spirit has more than sufficiently demonstrated.
Quite agreeable, of course, was this state of things to those who thought it in their abundant riches the result of inevitable economic laws and accordingly, as if it were for charity to veil the violation of justice which lawmakers not only tolerated but at times sanctioned, wanted the whole care of supporting the poor committed to charity alone.
The rich fruits which the Church of Christ and the whole human race have, by God’s favor, reaped therefrom unto salvation prove that some of this good seed, so lavishly sown forty years ago, fell on good ground.
If these principles are observed by everyone, everywhere, and always, not only the production and acquisition of goods but also the use of wealth, which now is seen to be so often contrary to right order, will be brought back soon within the bounds of equity and just distribution.
Lastly, We must not omit to mention those crafty men who, wholly unconcerned about any honest usefulness of their work, do not scruple to stimulate the baser human desires and, when they are aroused, use them for their own profit.